In the past due 1970s, private computer systems had been beginning to take off, with lots of alternatives from an array of corporations. The Altair 8800 changed into an early entrant, popular among techie users and developers. Others, which include Radio Shack’s TRS-80 (mentioned via its critics because of the Trash 80), the Apple I and II, and the Commodore PET, sold to a greater mainstream set of clients.

The Texas Instruments 99/4: World’s First 16-Bit Computer 1

Industry watchers predicted TI to have a big impact in the marketplace—if it managed to introduce a competitive product. By 1977, TI engineers have been difficult at paintings on no longer just one computer design but 3: 1) a low-cease video game console supposed to promote for underneath the US $200, with video games stored on ROM cartridges; 2) a personal computer aimed at hobbyists and users of Radio Shack and Apple computers, and three) and excessive-stop business laptop with nearly 10 megabytes of hard disk garage.

As tends to take place in large groups, turf wars broke out. The boundary between the online game and domestic PC organizations, each of which had been competing for resources in TI’s facility in Lubbock, Texas, commenced growing fuzzy. Meanwhile, the commercial enterprise laptop’s intended market actually overlapped with that of the minicomputer and portable terminal products, which got here out of TI’s Data Systems Division. Ultimately, the online game and personal laptop efforts merged, and the commercial enterprise computer becomes moved to the Data Systems Division, where it became considered with hostility and subsequently killed.

The surviving home computer institution, whose product is now referred to as the 99/4, began receiving masses of the company “assist,” inclusive of pressure to apply TI’s bothered sixteen-bit TMS9900 microprocessor. Peter van Cuylenburg, who turned into TI’s European advertising and marketing division, got here up with a modern option to this company stress. He commissioned a third-birthday party contractor to design and build a private laptop, code-named “Mojo,” using the best chips made by using TI. The contractor used TI’s model of the Intel 8080A, similarly to plenty of TI TTL, memory, and other components.

While Mojo solved the desire for company synergy among the organization’s semiconductor and consumer merchandise organizations, the TMS9900 become greater virtually a TI microprocessor. And so, after a series of discussions and compromises, the Mojo idea was discarded, and the ninety-nine/four ended up the use of the TMS9900 as well as the TMS9918 photos chip. The ninety nine/4 additionally ended up with a mixture of features from the authentic online game layout (together with an ultra-cheap keyboard, RF clips to attach to a TV set, and ROM-based packages).

When the ninety nine/4 subsequently emerged in 1979, having transcended three units of TI control, it frequently acquired disparaging reviews. Benjamin M. Rosen of Morgan Stanley, who became then the leading semiconductor analyst and fasted turning into the leading personal computer analyst, wrote a funny article about the disappointment of what was anticipated to be a first-rate contender in the private PC commercial enterprise. A revised model, the TI-99/4A became released in 1981 with a higher keyboard, but it wasn’t sufficient:

In 1983, the New York Times called the ninety nine/4 “an embarrassing failure.”Despite being the sector’s first 16-bit domestic computer, the ninety nine/4, just like the microprocessor on which it changed into totally, turned into a dog. Intended to fulfill two very exceptional markets, the ninety nine/4 and ninety-nine/4A served neither one properly. Unsurprisingly, initial sales had been vulnerable. By 1982 Commodore had initiated a rated battle with its VIC-20 computer, forcing TI first to provide $100 rebates and eventually cut back the charge from an initial $1, an one hundred fifty to an unsustainable $49. The charge warfare became a fantastic boon to customers because it made non-public computers low-cost to a wider marketplace. TI saw income of the 99/4A explode, subsequently reaching 2.Eight million gadgets.