How Saying ‘No’ Is The Secret To Escaping Your Personal Prison

When Ivy Woolf-Turk went to mattress, she never imagined what would manifest next. At five:30 have she heard a noise at her door and opened it to locate FBI marketers surrounding her and her domestic at gunpoint, telling her that she was under arrest for conspiracy to commit mail and card fraud. And that morning, about 10 years in the past, she by no means dreamed she’d be doing what she’s doing today.

In our Mentoring Moments podcast, Woolf-Turk shares her prone stories approximately how she went from a privileged life to federal prison (serving four years of a five-yr sentence), how re-entry into the real international became the combat of her life and how coming across the electricity of the word “no” modified the whole thing. Now she’s a certified professional lifestyles train and the founder of Project Liberation, building a movement to disrupt the pathways that lead ladies to imprisonment, literally and figuratively. Through partnerships with the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, NYC Center for Social Innovation, The Justice Advocacy Group and others, Project Liberation is establishing the doorways to sustainable freedom for all ladies. As Woolf-Turk rewrites her story and “re-rights” the machine, she is also supporting masses of women that she works with do the identical. Here’s an excerpt from our podcast, in Woolf-Turk’s words, condensed and edited: feelAs we rode in via the underground tunnels of New York City, I Fel Feelin GoF alleviation. As crazy as that sounds, it was in that moment once I became handcuffed, shivering and thrown into a cold, darkish ready cellular that I heard the Anaïs Nin quote: “And the day got here when the hazard to stay tight within the bud became extra painful than the threat it took to blossom.”

Through partnerships with the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, NYC Center for Social Innovation, The Justice Advocacy Group and others, Project Liberation is establishing the doorways to sustainable freedom for all ladies. As Woolf-Turk rewrites her story and “re-rights” the machine, she is also supporting masses of women that she works with do the identical. Here’s an excerpt from our podcast, in Woolf-Turk’s words, condensed and edited: As we rode in via the underground tunnels of New York City, I felt a feel of alleviation. As crazy as that sounds, it was in that moment once I became handcuffed, shivering and thrown into a cold, darkish ready cellular that I heard the Anaïs Nin quote: “And the day got here when the hazard to stay tight within the bud became extra painful than the threat it took to blossom.”

I knew that I turned into dwelling inauthentically, valuing things that didn’t definitely count and afraid to make any adjustments that might disrupt the life I became seeking to offer for my circle of relatives as a single mom. I wasn’t able to stop what I knew changed into wrong. I wasn’t able to say the phrase “no” to my abusive commercial enterprise companion due to the fact I changed into fearful of the unknown results, worried that I could no longer live on with out him.

However, what then ensued was some distance worse than anything I ought to have imagined. Maya Angelou as soon as stated, “When a person indicates you who they’re, believe them.” Why is it that I, and so many ladies, can’t do that? We are conditioned to restore the whole thing and nurture everybody on the fee of ourselves. I’m now not sitting here as a sufferer. And I’m now not pronouncing that there aren’t circumstances like extreme poverty, abuse and trauma which might be devastating. But a number of it is our conditioning.

 

 

Uber’s Head Of Finance Is Heading To Opendoor

Uber app quickly-to-be former head of finance, Gautam Gupta, is set to join actual estate startup Open door as its first-ever leader working officer, Axios reviews.

News of Gupta’s upcoming departure from Uber app, at the side of facts on Uber’s sales, got here past due final month. Gupta is leaving Uber in July, after 4 years of operating on the transportation enterprise in commercial enterprise and finance roles.uber's

Uber app has been without a first-rate monetary officer for the reason that 2015, whilst Brent Callinocos left and later joined Hyperloop One. Uber app has been seeking out a CFO at the least for the reason that ceases of May.

Open door, based in 2014, has raised $320 million in investment. With Gupta, alongside different new hires (former Amazon executives Jason Child and Bali Raghavan) on board, Open Door plans to make bigger into additional markets, in line with Axios.

I’ve reached out to Open door and could replace this tale if I hear again.

 

Judicious Use of personal finance Assignment Assistance

Financial Accounting is one of the maximum famous and favorite courses. At the same time, it is pretty tough to take a look at and grasp. The subject has a variety of factors which can go away a scholar confused and bewildered whilst writing statements and fixing financial instances. Most of the instances, the scholars are hard pressed for time and grapple with a variety of academic assignments simultaneously.

Online Help and Its Significance

When going through such a trouble, the students can make use of online homework challenge assist websites. Seeking help and guidance from those websites assist the students in filing their paintings on time. They are saved from being penalized while there is a postpone in submitting the assigned duties.

Help Available for a Variety of Subjects

The online academic help websites offer expert assistance and steering in an expansion of subjects. Students pursuing subjects like personal finance, Engineering, Accounting and extra may additionally need this assist every so often. The college students can also enlist this help to write down dissertations, thesis, and essays. The expert academic experts can manual the students in solving complex case research. Thus, this is an excellent aid machine available for the scholars.

Judicious Use of personal finance Homework Help

Having decided to search for personal finance instructional help from a reliable and reputed academic portal, the students have to maintain underneath elements in mind-finance

1. Seek to assist best on a specific topic in which the scholars are going through a variety of problems. This manner, they’ll no longer shell out extra money. This help is useful best while a student is not able to finish an educational mission because of lack of knowledge or time. Moreover, the students need to attempt to complete the challenge themselves and only if they’re no longer capable of, they have to technique a professional instructional assist website.

2. Look for a reliable and reputed instructional assist site. There is not any dearth of academic portals making tall claims of imparting first rate services. It is always higher to are trying to find services from a portal this is recognized for offering quality project work finished well within pre-determined time. They ought to adhere to the great and timely transport commitments.

Shhhh! Use These 5 WordPress SEO Secrets to Drive Insane Traffic

New Widget-associated Features
Adding Images: Adding an image to a widget can now be performed without using code. Images can be added inside the widget’s settings.Adding Videos: Turn any video out of your media library right into a sidebar widget with the brand new “Video” widget.Adding Audio: Any audio in your media library can now be was a widget inside the widget settings.Adding Rich Text: Text widgets can now be effortlessly formatted with native wealthy textual content editing skills.Link Boundaries
Editing links inside content material have ended up barely simpler with a new feature referred to as Link Boundaries. Appending new text to current anchor textual content can now be carried out without having to re-insert the hyperlink.
Nearby WordPress Events


The new WordPress four.8 dashboard has a segment for retaining you informed of nearby WordPress occasions
Removal of Support for WMV and WMA Files
Amongst all the new capabilities being added, WordPress has eliminated support for growing older audio and video formats. File formats requiring the Silverlight plugin will now not be embedded in the content material, however, can still be displayed as a download hyperlink.

Search Engine Optimization: It is very important for the ranking of your website and a CMS can either increase it or decrease it drastically. So, you should opt for the one that gives you more SEO benefits. WordPress has inbuilt SEO features than the Joomla, so you should go for the first option because the ranking of your website is very much important for your business expansion.

Security: Another important thing you need to give attention while developing your website is its security, which you cannot take for granted anyways. When it comes to the safety and security of your overall website, so, Joomla takes the cake with its more secure feature.

Customization: Do you want to customize your website? If yes, WordPress is the best CMS to use. This is because it is easier to add plugins, extensions, templates or any other functionality to this CMS than the Joomla.

Flexibility: Website Development is the most important part, so you have to be very careful while picking the CMS at this stage. Both the CMS are a little bit complex and allow users to manage the website but WordPress makes this work easier, especially for a non-technical person than the Joomla. Surely, you should go for this option if you are a non-technical person and don’t want to dig into the pool of coding.Conclusion: No doubt, Joomla is perfect in its own way because it offers an incredible functionality to enhance your website but when it comes to flexibility, performance, SEO, customization, and content management potential, WordPress win the race. So, you should go for this option because it makes your developing experience the way better than ever. If you still have any doubt, consulting a reputed website Development is an ideal choice this is because they are experts and know which platform suits your business needs.

Sources of Business Finance

Sources of business finance can be studied under the following heads:

(1) Short Term Finance:

Short-term finance is needed to fulfill the current needs of a business. The current needs may include payment of taxes, salaries or wages, repair expenses, payment to creditor etc. The need for short term finance arises because sales revenues and purchase payments are not perfectly same at all the time. Sometimes sales can be low as compared to purchases. Further sales may be on credit while purchases are on cash. So short term finance is needed to match this disequilibrium.

Sources of short term finance are as follows:

(i) Bank Overdraft: Bank overdraft is very widely used the source of business finance. Under this client can draw the certain sum of money over and above his original account balance. Thus it is easier for the businessman to meet short term unexpected expenses.

(ii) Bill Discounting: Bills of exchange can be discounted at the banks. This provides cash to the holder of the bill which can be used to finance immediate needs.

(iii) Advances from Customers: Advances are primarily demanded and received the confirmation of orders, However, these are also used as the source of financing the operations necessary to execute the job order.

(iv) Installment Purchases: Purchasing on installment gives more time to make payments. The deferred payments are used as a source of financing small expenses which are to be paid immediately.business

(v) Bill of Lading: Bill of lading and other export and import documents are used as a guarantee to take the loan from banks and that loan amount can be used as finance for a short time period.

(vi) Financial Institutions: Different financial institutions also help businessmen to get out of financial difficulties by providing short-term loans. Certain co-operative societies can arrange short term financial assistance for businessmen.

(vii) Trade Credit: It is the usual practice of the businessmen to buy raw material, store and spares on credit. Such transactions result in increasing accounts payable of the business which is to be paid after a certain time period. Goods are sold on cash and payment is made after 30, 60, or 90 days. This allows some freedom to businessmen in meeting financial difficulties.

(2) Medium Term Finance:

This finance is required to meet the medium term (1-5 years) requirements of the business. Such finances are basically required for the balancing, modernization, and replacement of machinery and plant. These are also needed for re-engineering of the organization. They said the management in completing medium term capital projects within planned time. Following are the sources of medium term finance:

(i) Commercial Banks: Commercial banks are the major source of medium term finance. They provide loans for different time-period against appropriate securities. At the termination of terms, the loan can be renegotiated, if required.

(ii) Hire Purchase: Hire purchase means buying on installments. It allows the business house to have the required goods with payments to be made in future in agreed installment. Needless to say that some interest is always charged on the outstanding amount.

(iii) Financial Institutions: Several financial institutions such as SME Bank, Industrial Development Bank, etc., also provide medium and long-term finances. Besides providing finance they also provide technical and managerial assistance on different matters.

(iv) Debentures and TFCs: Debentures and TFCs (Terms Finance Certificates) are also used as a source of medium term finances. A debenture is an acknowledgment of the loan from the company. It can be of any duration as agreed among the parties. The debenture holder enjoys return at a fixed rate of interest. Under Islamic mode of financing, debentures have been replaced by TFCs.

(v) Insurance Companies: Insurance companies have a large pool of funds contributed by their policy holders. Insurance companies grant loans and make investments out of this pool. Such loans are the source of medium term financing for various businesses.sources

(3) Long Term Finance:

Long term finances are those that are required on the permanent basis or for more than five years tenure. They are basically desired to meet structural changes in business or for heavy modernization expenses. These are also needed to initiate a new business plan or for a long term developmental projects. Following are its sources:

(i) Equity Shares: This method is most widely used all over the world to raise long term finance. Equity shares are subscribed by the public to generate the capital base of a large scale business. The equity share holders share the profit and loss of the business. This method is safe and secured, in a sense that amount once received is only paid back at the time of wounding up of the company.

(ii) Retained Earnings: Retained earnings are the reserves which are generated from the excess profits. In times of need, they can be used to finance the business project. This is also called plowing back of profits.finance

(iii) Leasing: Leasing is also a source of long term finance. With the help of leasing, new equipment can be acquired without any heavy outflow of cash.

(iv) Financial Institutions: Different financial institutions such as former PICIC also provide long term loans to business houses.

(v) Debentures: Debentures and Participation Term Certificates are also used as a source of long term financing.

Finance Functions For Police Forces

Police investment has risen via £4.Eight billion and seventy-seven per cent (39 in keeping with the cent in real terms) because 1997. However, the times wherein forces have enjoyed such stages of funding are over.Police investment has risen via £4.Eight billion and seventy-seven per cent (39 in keeping with the cent in real terms) because 1997. However, the times wherein forces have enjoyed such stages of funding are over.finance
Chief Constables and senior management recognize that the once a year cycle of looking for efficiencies 12 months-on-yr is not sustainable, and will now not address the cash shortfall in years yet to come. Facing slower funding growth and real coins deficits of their budgets, the Police Service needs to adopt revolutionary strategies which generate the productivity and efficiency profits had to supply excessive excellent policing to the public.
The step-trade in performance required to meet this mission will best be executed if the police service fully embraces powerful aid control and makes green and effective use of its generation, partnerships and those.
The finance function has an important role to play in addressing those challenges and assisting Forces’ targets economically and efficaciously.
Challenge
Police Forces tend to nurture a divisional and departmental way of life instead of a company one, with man or woman procurement sports that do not take advantage of economies of scale. This is an element the result of over a decade of devolving capabilities from the middle to the.Divisions.
In order to lessen costs, enhance performance and mitigate towards the chance of “top down” obligatory, centrally-pushed tasks, Police Forces want to install a company lower back workplace and set off behavioral trade. This change must involve compliance with a corporate subculture instead of a series of silos going for walks thru the employer.
Developing a Best in Class Finance Function
Traditionally finance features within Police Forces have focused on transactional processing with only confined aid for management records and commercial enterprise decision help. With a renewed consciousness on efficiencies, there may be now a pressing need for finance departments to convert as a way to upload greater cost to the pressure but with minimum fees.
1) Aligning to Force Strategy
As Police Forces want finance to feature, it’s miles imperative that finance and operations are closely aligned. This collaboration can be very effective and assist deliver big upgrades to a Force, however with the intention to gain this model, there are many obstacles to triumph over. Finance Directors have to examine whether or not their Force is ready for this collaboration, but extra importantly, they ought to keep in mind whether the Force itself can live on with out it.
Finance calls for a clear vision that facilities around its position as a balanced commercial enterprise companion. However to achieve this vision a huge attempt is required from the lowest as much as apprehend the massive complexity in underlying systems and methods and to plan a manner forward which could work for that unique organization.
The fulfillment of any exchange control software is depending on its execution. Change is difficult and highly-priced to execute correctly, and frequently, Police Forces lack the relevant revel in to gain such change. Although finance directors are required to maintain suitable professional qualifications (rather than being former cops as turned into the case a few years ago) many have progressed within the Public Sector with confined possibilities for getting to know from an interplay with pleasant in class methodologies. In addition, cultural problems around self-maintenance can present boundaries to change.
Whilst it is tremendously clean to get the message of finance transformation throughout, securing commitment to embark on formidable change can be difficult. Business cases regularly lack the fine required to pressure through exchange and even in which they may be of incredible great senior cops regularly lack the economic attention to consider them.
2) Supporting Force Decisions
Many Finance Directors are keen to develop their finance capabilities. The challenge they face is convincing the relaxation of the Force that the finance function can add value – by using devoting extra time and effort to financial evaluation and offering senior management with the gear to understand the economic implications of predominant strategic choices.
Maintaining Financial Controls and Managing Riskfunctions
Sarbanes Oxley, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), Basel II and Individual Capital Assessments (ICA) have all placed monetary controls and reporting below the highlight in the private area. This, in turn, is increasing the highlight on economic controls in the public zone.
A ‘Best in Class’ Police Force finance characteristic will no longer simply have the minimum controls to meet the regulatory requirements but will examine how the regulation and guidelines that the finance characteristic are required to conform with, may be leveraged to offer a fee to the organization. Providing strategic information with the intention to allow the pressure to fulfill its goals is a key assignment for a leading finance function.
3) Value to the Force
The drive for development during the last decade or so has moved selection making to the Divisions and has caused an increase in expenses inside the finance feature. Through utilizing a number of tasks in a program of transformation, a Force can leverage up to forty% of savings at the price of finance together with enhancing the responsiveness of finance teams and the pleasant of financial records. These projects include:
Centralization
By centralizing the finance function, a Police Force can create facilities of excellence where enterprise fine practice may be evolved and shared. This will now not handiest re-empower the department, growing extra independence and objectivity in assessing projects and overall performance, but also cause extra consistent management information and a better degree of manage. A Police Force can also develop a enterprise partner organization to act as strategic liaisons to departments and divisions. The commercial enterprise partners would, for example, recommendations on how the departmental and divisional commanders can meet the budget in future months instead of simply advising that the budget has been overlooked for the preceding month.
With the mundane wide variety crunching being done in a shared provider middle, finance specialists will discover they now have time to behave as commercial enterprise partners to divisions and departments and awareness at the strategic troubles.
The cultural impact on the departments and divisional commanders must now not be underestimated. Commanders might be worried that:
o Their budgets could be centralized o Workloads could increase o There can be limited get admission to finance people o There will no longer be on web site help
However, if the centralized shared provider middle is designed correctly not one of the above need to practice. In reality from centralization underneath a quality practice version, leaders have to accrue the following blessings:
o Strategic recommendation furnished through enterprise partners o Increased flexibility o Improved management information o Faster transactions o Reduced variety of unresolved queries o Greater clarity on provider and value of provision o Forum for finance to be strategically aligned to the wishes of the Force
A Force that moves from a decentralized to a centralized gadget should try to make sure that the finance characteristic does now not lose touch with the Chief Constable and Divisional Commanders. Forces want to have a robust enterprise case for finance transformation mixed with a governance structure that spans operational, tactical and strategic necessities. There is a chance that ability blessings of imposing the sort of exchange may not be found out if this system isn’t always cautiously managed. Investment is wanted to create a successful centralized finance characteristic. Typically the future capacity blessings of extra visibility and control, steady procedures, standardized management facts, economies of scale, lengthy-term fee financial savings and an empowered group of proud finance experts, should outweigh the ones preliminary costs.
To lessen the economic, operational and capability risks, the finance features may be completely outsourced or in part outsourced to 1/3 parties. This will offer guaranteed cost blessings and can provide the possibility to leverage relationships with companies that provide first-rate practice procedures.police forces
Process Efficiencies
Typically for Police Forces, the focus on development has evolved a silo based tradition with disparate strategies. As a end result, full-size opportunities exist for standardization and simplification of approaches which provide scalability, reduce manual effort and supply enterprise benefit. From surely rationalizing procedures, a force can commonly accrue a 40% discount in the number of tactics. An instance of that is the use of digital bank statements in place of the use of the guide bank assertion for financial institution reconciliation and money owed receivable approaches. This might keep enormous effort that is involved in analyzing the information, shifting the facts onto the extraordinary spreadsheet and inputting the facts into the financial structures.
Organizations that own a silo running version have a tendency to have sizable inefficiencies and duplication of their methods, as an example in HR and Payroll. This is basically because of the team’s involved assembly their very own dreams but now not aligning to the corporate targets of a company. Police Forces have some of the impartial groups which can be reliant on each other for information with finance in departments, divisions, and headquarters sending and receiving information from every different in addition to from the relaxation of the Force. The silo version ends in ineffective statistics being obtained by way of the groups that then must carry out extra work to reap the records required.

Finance, Credit, Investments

Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.

The definition of the totality of the economic relations formed in the process of formation, distribution, and usage of finances, as money sources are widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:finance

1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, a formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relative to the conditions of Capitalism when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;

2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized and decentralized money sources, economic relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for the fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.

First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of a financial domain belong not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.

This latest first appears to be a part of the value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind of the consistency of the ready products cost price.

Second, the main goal of finances is much wider than “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufacturers and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufacturers are not stated.

V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistency of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related to the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.

In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufacturers are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, raising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”. credit
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economic relations arisen between state, manufacturers and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:

1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;

2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.

3) Distribution of finances as the social product and the value of national income, the definition of the distributions planned the character, main goals of the economy and economic relations, for servicing of which it is used.

If refuse the proposition “socialistic” in the definition of finances, we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the modern economic literature. We may give such an elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of production and usage, also cash relations appeared in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further production of the cash incomes and savings of the economic subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and satisfaction of the social requests”. in this elucidation of finances like D. S. Polyakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the traditional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the financial foundation. They concern “distribution and redistribution of the value of a created economical product, also the partial distribution of the value of national wealth”. This latest is very actual, relatively to the process of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in practice in different countries, for example, Great Britain and France.

“Finances – are cash sources, financial resources, their creation and movement, distribution and redistribution, usage, also economic relations, which are conditioned by entering calculations between the economic subjects, movement of cash sources, money circulation and usage”.
“Finances are the system of economic relations, which are connected with firm creation, distribution, and usage of financial resources”.

We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Finance – it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit cash resources and incomes in the definite period of time. The financial decisions are characterized by the expenses and incomes which are 1) separated in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into account beforehand neither by those who get decisions nor any other person”. “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions… which learn systematically the subjects of distribution of the cash resources relative to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of every financial decision take place”.

These basic conceptions and quantitative models are used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of finances, we meet with the following doctrine of the financial foundation: the main function of the finances is to the satisfaction of the people’s requests; the subjects of economic activities of any kind (firms, also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling this basic function.investment

For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known definitions about finances, credit, and investment, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments and credit into the one total part.

Some researcher thing that credit is the consisting part of finances if it is discussed from the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous group proves, that an economic category of credit exists parallel to the economic category of finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence in the consistency of finances.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational games technology. Different educationists, scientists, and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Games Technology. Educational games technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.educational

Educational games technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational games technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational games technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like the projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio, and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational games scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipment for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational games technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since the 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational games technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational games technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.technology

During the Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period), for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after the appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, archaeological evidence proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidence in favor of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted in the appearance of Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational games technology during the period of Ancient Civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational games technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which was also supported by a number of investigations and evidence. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behavior intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational games values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending up to the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending up to southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.history

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued later on provides the evidence of the existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidence support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenberg, a German inventor. The invention of the printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while the industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes relied heavily on simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. The educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other types of equipment.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of the prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per him design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in the USA. The Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor, as well as the Talking Type writer, was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges, and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making a sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in the United Kingdom was equipped with radios and there were regular daily programs.

The Fracture of American Education

A “fracture” is defined as the separation of an object into two or more parts because of being under stress. Today, the American airlines reservations education system is under extreme stress, as it is attacked from the right for being too expensive, from the left as not holding teachers accountable, and from the business community, as not providing the graduate student’s industry needs. This stress is splitting education into two groups of students and educators; haves and have nots.american

After World War Two, the United States recognized the need to educate all its citizens. The technological advances of the war made it clear that the future would require massive numbers of well- educated and technologically sophisticated workers. Finding such as these were also supported by reports from the American airlines reservations Society for Engineering Education which was appointed in May 1952 to study this problem and produced the groundbreaking report, “Summary of the Report on Evaluation of Engineering Education” known as the Grinter report. The age of atomic energy would require larger numbers of trained employees in engineering sciences.

The result of reports such as this was the opening of university doors to increasing number of american airlines reservations. The United States in the nineteen fifties and sixties became the shining beacon of educational success to the world. Yet, today as the country enters the 21st century and a new era of technological advancement, we begin to see those doors closing. In the name of fiscal responsibility, conservative administrations around the country are balancing budgets by drastically reducing, or in many cases eliminating areas of education and technology. This year, the state of Florida will take $1.75 billion from its education budget for grades K through 12, and additional significant amounts from its colleges. In states all across the country educational systems are under extreme stress, not to do more with less, but to do something with nothing.

At a time when the country desperately needs well trained and well-educated workers, we are removing the very institutions that can provide them. In the years that I have been involved in education in this country, never have I seen such drastic cuts. This stress is creating two particular classes a people within our society, those who have the funds to seek education, and those are being denied access to education because of these cuts. Even as these administrations begin to reduce funding four educational systems throughout the country, the president of United States begins to list all the virtues and needs of having a better-educated society to remain competitive in this technological world. These two forces are moving in opposite directions to each other and creating the very stresses that will break our system into two competing camps of haves and have-nots.education

The poor, minorities, disenfranchised, will be forever locked out of the system because of economics’, and declining opportunity as schools reduce instructors and become more selective in the types of students that they take in an effort to meet the requirements imposed by governments in these tight fiscal times. Already in states such as Michigan, there is discussion underway to close half of the public school systems of the state in order to meet fiscal stability. With moves such as these, it will not be long before we have seen the establishment of a permanent underclass that will be forever denied education. But this is not the only stress on the educational systems in this country. Teachers find themselves under attack by the very government that is extolling the needs for the more educated populace.

In contrast to conservative interest, the Federal Department Education has begun to create its own stress on the educational system as it changes the requirements for instructors and for educational institutions that hire those instructors. In 2011 there’ll be rule changes governing a significant sector of the educational systems in this country called “gainful employment”. These regulations will require institutions to ensure that students graduating from their programs reach a certain level of heat up within the first two years after graduation, or risk losing their Federal funding to result of this is the institutions will eliminate many programs that have been having difficulty placing students into full-time positions in the numbers the department of education requires.

This also means that these same institutions have begun to shift away from hiring the most capable of teachers, to a posture of hiring the most educated instructors. In the last year, I have often battled with institutions of this type concerning education for security professionals. Often, the most qualified person to teach a course in criminal justice will be a police officer. But, these individuals will often lack the upper-level degrees institutions now seek to meet the guidelines of the department of education. This increase in the educational requirements is felt to be a theoretical way of guaranteeing that the programs will have the best-educated person for the instructors, so the students will be better prepared.

This, of course, means that instructors that are police officers with years of experience in the field and highly qualified will be excluded from these positions because they lack upper-level degrees, such as the master’s degree and the Ph.D… This process will create any delete structure for college professors that, we upgrade the radical training, but lacked practical application, and experience. Strangely, one of the forces most active in creating this particular stress on the educational system is that portion of society which benefits the most, the private sector.fracture

As the cost of educating professionals and employees in this country has risen, private industry has begun to look to foreign countries for qualified professionals to satisfy their job needs. A process of outsourcing has become a statement of fact for american airlines reservations business. As a result, the number of students applying for technological education in the United States is on the decline, while competition for education in engineering and technology in countries such as China and India is on the increase. A prime example of this is the nation of Japan, which was once considered the technological rival of United States.

Today Japan’s growing society is having trouble finding qualified employees to do the technological jobs that countries industries need. In the last half decade, Japan has been forced to import engineers, technicians, and scientist from India and China because it cannot graduate enough to meet the needs of its country. We’re already beginning to see the development of a similar pattern in this country.

In the sixties, seventies, eighties, and nineties, United States attracted far more students to universities here for advanced training than any other country in the world. In the last several years that process has begun to reverse. Students no longer see the United States as the mecca for education that it once was. As this process accelerates it will be easier to find cheaper professional labor in foreign countries for lesser salaries. As Jacob Kirkegaard wrote in his book, “The Accelerating Decline in America’s High-Skilled Workforce: Implications for Immigration Policy.

Education is the True Path to Success

The government has a big role in providing its citizens proper education. Pakistan has undergone a number of changes since the 1980s. Recent policy changes are slowly shaping the nation, making it look more and more like Western nations that embrace “Americanization.” Pakistan is rapidly losing its social democratic status. Unfortunately, the so-called economic restructuring that is currently taking place is having adverse effects on the Pakistani school system and its students also. By analyzing the changes made to Pakistan’s education system we can track neoliberalism’s level of growth in the country. Privatization of education means transferring taxpayers’ money designated for public education to luxuries of the Government, corporations, and/or individuals instead of to public schools, colleges, and universities. For the poor and middle-class people, to have access in proper education, government’s educational free facilities are most vital; should be available.education

It is undisputed that common man creates the government. Government exists to assure and protect the will of the people. Contrarily, against our will, almost all our costs of living including a cost of news universities are now blatantly rigged against us. A huge percentage of our tax ultimately ends up in the pockets of politicians. Experience of the past about five years proves that our tax money is not going into our community; it is going into the pockets of the billionaires called our leaders – it is obscene. Our ruling elite has engineered a financial coup and has brought a war to our doorstep; they have launched a war to eliminate the Pakistani middle and lower class. They have deprived the people of getting the affordable quality education. Private and self-financed public institutes have high fees so the poor cannot afford that fee. Private or self-financing education is nothing but making our country back because not only rich people, who can afford, but also lower class and middle-class families also have brilliant children and they want to study further in good institutions but financial problems create much stress for them, students get a lot of stress, and sometimes it makes them so desperate that they think to commit suicide thus who lose the talent? Our leaders, our country!

The state of the Pakistani news universities system began to change and ultimately crumble after the 1980s. So called reforms have dramatically changed Pakistan’s news universities system, both from an economic and pedagogical perspective. There are clear signs that an affordable quality education in Pakistan is under threat. Pakistan’s education system has fallen victim to neoliberal globalization. Neoliberalism has regarded the educational institutes more as a commodity exchange and commercial body than as a sacrosanct academic institution or means of social and national integration.

It is generally accepted that the educational level of each country has a direct relationship with its development; as much people have access to education, the country has more opportunities to grow. Therefore the government has to spend an important part of its budget to provide good educational levels for its people. With the help of Government, the public institutions should promote access, affordability and attainment in news universities including higher news universities by reining in costs, providing value for poor families, and preparing students with a high-quality news universities to succeed in their careers. The more hardworking students must be provided with a fair shot at pursuing higher education because news universities are not a luxury: it is an economic imperative that every hard working and responsible student should be able to afford.

The educational system is today being formulated only to meet the demands of government to meet neo-liberal agenda. Political leaders have been able to get away with these changes. The quality of education is going down, students are feeling the pressure to get the grades and teachers are left to deal with the ambiguity and the uncertainty of how to achieve the objectives and standards set by the state. This has had negative consequences on the educational system in Pakistan, which are impacting students, teachers, and communities. Our educationists and the Government have done nothing to upgrade the quality of Pakistan’s news universities system.success

The bitter truth is our corrupt political elite don’t want common people getting a world-class education. PPP Government is out to systematically wipe out the HEC’s achievements and destroy it in absolute terms. The poor are more marginalized after education is commercialized. Our children want an education but they fail to cope in universities because everything is out of reach for middle and lower middle-class students. Pakistan needs highly educated people to deal with the growing political dynamics that prevail – we should not be looking at the possibilities of outsourcing decision-making to external forces simply because we do not have people educated enough to strategize Pakistan’s policies. To achieve this goal there must be an affordable higher education in place. The government should also direct its efforts towards villages. It should open more schools and employ more teachers.path

The opening of schools does not mean erecting costly buildings and employing an army of unwilling teachers who are not fit to do what they are required to do, as had been the case during last five years. Only merit based dedicated staff can make the dream of education for all a reality. The government should provide scholarships to brilliant students. The Government should be committed to placing a good education within reach of all who are willing to work for it helps build a strong Pakistani middle class. Equal opportunities for development to all the children during the period of growth should be the aim of the Government. Healthy and educated citizens are the driving force of a nation’s productivity; the government should invest on this for the people to achieve their optimum well-being. We believe the government has an obligation to ensure that ample funding is made available to the education sector. By investing in education, the government will be investing in its own success story of human resource development.